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Introduction to GraphQL

By Mike Riethmuller, Published on Tue Sep 01 2020

In this tutorial we're going to discuss some of the key differences between REST and GraphQL APIs then create a GraphQL server with Node.js. You will need to know basic HTML and JavaScript, how to run a few commands in a terminal, as well as have Node and NPM installed.

What is an API?

Broadly speaking an API can be defined as a way for programmers to interface with an application. This often means an API describes the functions and methods available to developers within a specific development environment. If that development environment is the public web, an API will usually refer to URL "end-points" used for sending and receiving data.

Rest APIs

The traditional method for interfacing with applications on the web is a REST API. One defining characteristic of REST APIs is they use HTTP request methods, such as GET, PUT, POST &DELETE to "CRUD" operations. Typically, PUT for Create, GET for Read, POST for Update and DELETE for Delete.

This structure makes REST predictable but also highlights some limitations. Since a request method is limited to a single CRUD operation, it encourages API design that has a single end-point for each entity in the system. For example, a simple website might have the following end-points:

In large systems, this can lead to APIs with many dozen or even hundreds of end-points. This is a common criticism of REST.

Another criticism of REST is that a lot of APIs return a specific predefined shape. This means when you successfully "hit" an end-point, the data returned is determined by that end-point, not the request. This results in either fetching more data than you want, or perhaps more often, considerably less data than is required. Either outcome is not efficient.

These are some of the problems that GraphQL aims to solve.

GraphQL APIs

GraphQL APIs usually have a single endpoint and allow the client to specify a query that returns only required data.

A GraphQL query looks something like a this:

query getPage($id: Int!) {
  Page(id: $id) {
    author {

This query is fetching the name of a User, that is attached to the author field of a Page.

For GraphQL to validate and execute this query, it must know what fields available for a Page, that the author field is a reference to a User, what fields are available for a User and finally how to resolve the data.

It achieves this through schema definitions and resolvers. Schemas and types are an essential part of a GraphQL API. To create a GraphQL API, you need a server with a complete set of types that describe every possible input and return value for the API. You also need resolver functions that return values that match the schema definition.

Creating a GraphQL server

Let's create a GraphQL server that will handle queries and mutations for Posts and Users.

Start by creating a directory for the project with the following commands:

mkdir graphql-server-tutorial
cd graphql-server-tutorial
npm init --yes

We're going to use apollo-server to generate our API service and http-server to serve a static front-end. Run the following command to install these packages:

npm install apollo-server http-server

Defining a GraphQL schema

The first thing we need to do is define the schema for our API. Start by creating an index.js file in the root of the project directory. At the top of the file add the following:

const { ApolloServer, gql } = require('apollo-server');

const schema = gql`
  type User {
    id: ID!
    name: String

  type Page {
    id: ID!
    title: String
    author: User
    content: String

  type Query {
    Page(id: ID!): Page
    User(id: ID!): User

Both String and ID are built-in types GraphQL understands. We've created additional types for User and Page. You can probably see how types can be made up of nested types. This is how GraphQL queries can request deeply nested, related data in a way that REST APIs typically can't.

Note: We're creating a really simple schema here with just a User and a Page. It's useful to understand how this works but in a larger system, you might not want to define every part of the GraphQL schema by hand. Keystone generates a GraphQL schema and resolvers for you while allowing you to manually extend the generated graphQL schema.

Defining resolvers

Resolvers fetch and return data for queries. The returned data must match the shape we defined in the schema.

The first thing we need is a data source. For the sake of this tutorial we're going to work with a fixed set of data. Add the following to index.js:

const users = [
    id: '1',
    name: 'Mike',

const pages = [
    id: '1',
    name: 'Hello World',
    author: users[0],
    content: 'Lorem ipsum...',

Now let's write some resolvers that return this data:

const resolvers = {
  Query: {
    Page: (_, args) => {
      return pages.find(page => ===;
    User: (_, args) => {
      return users.find(user => ===;

Understanding types and resolvers can be one of the biggest stumbling blocks when getting started with GraphQL. This can be particularly difficult if you are not already familiar with typed languages however the GraphQL schema syntax can be a good introduction to these concepts.

Starting Apollo

To start the server all we need to do is pass ApolloServer our complete schema and resolvers. Add the following to the bottom of index.js:

const server = new ApolloServer({ typeDefs: schema, resolvers });

server.listen().then(({ url }) => {
  console.log(`🚀 GraphQL server started at: ${url}`);

Open the generated package.json file and add a start:server command in the scripts section:

"scripts": {
  "start:server": "node index.js"

Then run:

npm run start:server

Congratulations! You should have a GraphQL server up and running.

Executing a GraphQL query

The query we wrote earlier should now work. Before we learn how to execute GraphQL queries in our own application let's test it out using the GraphQL Playground Apollo provides. Visit http://localhost:4000 and paste the following query:

query getPage($id: ID!) {
  Page(id: $id) {
    author {

We still need to provide the id, so select "QUERY VARIABLES" in the bottom right and add the following JSON:


Now run the query and you should get the following result:

  author: {
    name: "Mike"

To send this query in a client application we need to use a POST request. The POST request should be sent to our GraphQL server with a content type of application/json and a JSON-encoded body similar to:

  "query": "...",
  "variables": { "id": "1" }

There are many client libraries that can make sending and receiving GraphQL queries easier, however, you don't need a client library to send a simple GraphQL request. We can send a GraphQL request using the browsers Fetch API.

Create a file called index.html. In that file place the following:

    <pre id="result"></pre>
      // write code here

We'll write code directly in script tag inside this HTML file - just to demonstrate the concept.

Add the following script to the page:

fetch('http://localhost:4000', {
  method: 'POST',
  headers: { 'Content-Type': 'application/json' },
  body: JSON.stringify({
    query: 'query getPage($id: ID!) { Page(id: $id) { author { name } } }',
    variables: '{ "id": "1"}',
  .then(res => res.json())
  .then(res => {
    // render the data on the page and console
    document.querySelector('#result').innerHTML = JSON.stringify(, null, 2);

Let's add a start command for the client to our package.json:

"scripts": {
  "start:server": "node index.js",
  "start:client": "npx http-server ."

With the server running, open new terminal window and run:

npm run start:client

Visit http://localhost:8080 in your browser and you should see the result of the query rendered to the console and on the page.

This is just one of the ways you can fetch data in a client application. Tools like graphql-tag or apollo-fetch make formatting variables and sending requests easier. For larger applications something like apollo-client might be useful.

We hope this introduction has demystified some aspect of GraphQL for you or given you a better understanding of how Keystone generates its GraphQL server.

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